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In most cases, the University of Baltimore adheres strictly to the Associated Press Stylebook. This style guide notes any instances in which UB deviates from Associated Press style and also serves as a resource for common style issues. If a particular word is not included here and not found in the AP Stylebook, please refer to Merriam-Webster.

Examples and references are italicized for easy recognition by the reader within the entries; do not italicize any terms, degrees, etc. in actual copy unless instructed to do so within the individual entry.



A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Punctuation | UB Buildings and Spaces | UB Offices

 

A

AACSB International—the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business

on second reference and thereafter: AACSB International or AACSB (as in AACSB-accredited)

This is an exception where the acronym is used more often than the long form, such as the association, on second and later references.

    • The school offers an AACSB-accredited online business program.

abbreviations and acronyms

In general, avoid the alphabet soup caused by peppering copy with too many abbreviations and acronyms; it’s confusing to readers. Rewrite copy instead.

In most cases, periods are not used after the letters of an acronym. On first use, write out an acronym. In future uses, attempt to avoid using any acronyms that may not be familiar to a wide audience. Also, do not use acronyms or abbreviations for subsequent references if they follow at a great distance from the spelled-out version. (How far is too far? Ask yourself if the readers who are least familiar with your document’s content would understand the acronym if they came upon it at a given point in the copy.)

    • preferred: Jane Smith is president of the Black Law Students Association. The association held its annual banquet in November.
    • also acceptable, though not preferred: Jane Smith is president of the Black Law Students Association. The BLSA held its annual banquet in November.

When abbreviating academic degrees, be sure to use periods (e.g., B.S., M.F.A.) in most cases, with the exception of MBA.

U.S. is acceptable as an adjective, but use United States for the noun.

ARTICLES (A, AN AND THE) WITH ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

Use the appropriate article (a, an or the) with abbreviations and acronyms when you would use that article in speech. In general, if an acronym (like NASA or NATO) is pronounced as a word rather than as a series of letters (the FBI), you do not need an article when the acronym is used as a noun. The choice between using a or an with an acronym or abbreviation is governed by how the acronym or abbreviation is typically spoken. Following these guidelines, we get the following:

    • Last night’s dinner honored a CIA leader.
    • What we need is an HTML expert.
    • Some suggest that NATO has outlived its usefulness.

academic and administrative titles

Whenever possible, include an individual’s title after his or her name and lowercase the title. A title is only capitalized when it appears before a name—unless it is an endowed or named position.

    • Kendra Kopelke, associate professor in the Klein Family School of Communications Design, co-founded the literary journal Passager.
    • Mike Laric, professor of marketing, is an expert on technology commercialization.
    • Kurt L. Schmoke, UB president, welcomed faculty members to the open house.
    • President Kurt L. Schmoke arrived at UB in 2014.
    • Jeffrey Sawyer is the H. Mebane Turner Professor of Early American and American Constitutional History.
    • Alumni were pleased to see former Dean John Smith at the event.

Do not use the title of Dr. for anyone other than medical doctors.

Do not hyphenate academic or administrative titles such as scholar in residence or writer in residence.

Lowercase a title that stands alone without a name.

    • He wanted to be governor of the state.
    • The chief financial officer of the bank was not available.
    • The chancellor was in attendance.

See capitalization; endowed professorships, named professorships; and professor.

academic degrees

See degrees.

acknowledgments

addresses

Abbreviate compass points used to indicate directional ends of a street or quadrants of a city in a numbered address; abbreviate only Ave., Blvd. and St. when used with a specific numbered address. Spell out and capitalize when used without a numbered address. Lowercase when referring to more than one street.

The University’s official address: 1420 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21201

    • The University’s address is 1420 N. Charles St.
    • The University is located on North Charles Street.
    • The University is located at the intersection of Maryland and Mount Royal avenues.

For the addresses of specific University buildings, see UB Buildings and Spaces.

administrative offices

Unless otherwise noted, most administrative offices at UB follow the Office of format.

    • Office of University Relations
    • Office of the President
    • Offices of Admission

notable exception: Law Career Development Office

See UB Offices for a complete list of administrative offices at the University of Baltimore.

Do not capitalize references to general administrative areas within the University, and always use formal office titles on first reference.

    • Jane Smith has worked in housekeeping for 15 years.
    • Her sister, Judy Smith, has worked in the Office of Undergraduate Admission for 10 years.
    • Judy Smith serves as one of seven counselors in the undergraduate admission office.

admission

not admissions

notable exception: Office of Law Admissions

adviser

not advisor; however, advisory is acceptable

affect, effect

Affect, as a verb, means “to influence.”

    • The game will affect the standings.

Effect, as a verb, means “to cause.”

    • He will effect many changes in the company.

Effect, as a noun, means “result.”

    • The effect was overwhelming.

African American, black

Both terms are acceptable, but African American is preferred by many. If the individual or group about which you are writing expresses a preference, use that term. Hyphenate this term only when it is used as an adjective that precedes a noun.

    • Joe Smith had a particular interest in African-American studies.
    • The author is African American.

ages

Always use figures when referring to people, animals and inanimate objects; hyphenate when used as a modifier.

    • Her daughter is 6 years old.
    • Jane, 6, has adjusted to the new classroom aide.
    • A 43-year-old woman was arrested for the crime.

alumna, alumnae, alumni

Use alumnus for an individual man, alumna for an individual woman, alumni for a group of men, alumnae for a group of women; use alumni when referring to a group composed of men and women. Avoid the term alum.

On first reference, alumni are noted by listing their degree and year of graduation, preceded by a comma after their name.

    • Peter Angelos, LL.B. ’61, is part-owner of the Orioles.

a.m., p.m.

Lowercase with periods.

    • 10 a.m., 7:15 p.m.

Note the style for durations of time (no space on either side of the hyphen).

    • 7-9 a.m.
    • 5-10 p.m.
    • 11 a.m.-2 p.m.

among, between

Use among when more than two objects are involved. Use between to show a relationship between only two objects.

ampersand

Do not use the ampersand (&) instead of and unless it is part of the official name of a company, product or other proper noun (e.g., Black & Decker, Barnes & Noble).

notable exceptions: Q&A and UB’s Ampersand Institute for Words & Images; also, all course titles and program names within the Klein Family School of Communications Design (ARTS, CMAT, CWPA, ENGL, DESN, PBDS and WRIT) use & instead of and

associate degree

not associate’s degree

assure, ensure, insure

Use ensure to mean guarantee.

    • Steps were taken to ensure accuracy.

Use insure for references to insurance.

    • The policy insures his life.

Use assure to mean to make sure or give confidence.

    • She assured us the statement was accurate.

B

bar

refers to the procedure by which a lawyer is licensed to practice law, known as the bar examination; lowercase bar

When a candidate passes the bar examination, the candidate is then admitted to the bar.

barbecue

not barbeque, Bar-B-Q or BBQ

Bee Card

These cards are issued by the Office of Campus Card Operations.

Bees

Capitalize when referring to the UB Bees, but lowercase in other, more general instances.

between

See among, between.

bi-

The rules for prefixes apply; generally, do not hyphenate.

    • The regents’ bimonthly meeting has been canceled.

buildings

For the formal names and addresses of UB’s buildings and both internal and external spaces, see UB Buildings and Spaces.

bulleted lists

See lists.

business and corporation names

Always double-check the proper spelling of any corporate or business name. Abbreviations such as Inc., LLC, LLP, Ltd., P.A., P.C., etc. are usually unnecessary and should be avoided.

Company (Co.) and Corporation (Corp.) should be abbreviated when they occur at the end of a name, but not within the name. Do not set these terms off with commas.

    • Ford Motor Co.
    • Corporation for Public Broadcasting

Do not abbreviate association, associated or associates.

C

campuses

UB’s main campus is located at 1420 N. Charles St. in Baltimore, Maryland. UB also offers degree programs at the Universities at Shady Grove in Rockville, Maryland.

campuswide

Do not hyphenate.

capitalization

Academic audiences often capitalize many titles out of convention. AP style should be followed on issues of capitalization.

ACADEMIC TERMS

Lowercase semesters and class standing.

    • the fall 2007 semester
    • the freshman class

COLLEGES

Capitalize when using the official name of a college.

    • The Yale Gordon College of Arts and Sciences houses the Publications Design program.
    • The college also offers several other graduate programs.

COURSES

See course titles and numbers, numerals.

DEPARTMENTS, OFFICES

Capitalize when using the official name of a specific department or office.

    • The Office of the President held an open house.
    • The president’s office is located on the third floor.

DEGREES

See degrees.

GRADUATING CLASSES

When referring to a specific institution’s graduation, class is usually capitalized: the University of Baltimore’s Class of 2016.

MAJORS/MINORS

Lowercase unless it involves a proper noun.

    • He is a history major. He is majoring in history.
    • She is an English major.
    • He minored in pop culture.

ROOMS

Capitalize when referencing a specific room number.

    • The event is in the Academic Center, Room 338.

SPECIALIZATIONS/TRACKS

Lowercase.

    • He is an alumnus of the B.S. in Business Administration’s accounting specialization.

TITLES

See academic and administrative titles, composition titles and government officials.

Note: University is capitalized in all mentions when it refers specifically to UB.

catalog

not catalogue

centers and institutes

See UB Offices.

Use the entire formal name on first reference; either center or institute (lowercase) is acceptable thereafter when identity is clear from the context.

CEO, CFO, CIO, COO

CEO is acceptable on first reference or as a stand-alone abbreviation, but the term should be spelled out somewhere in the text. Spell out all other, less familiar business titles, such as chief financial officer, etc.

certificates

UB offers many certificate programs. Graduates of such programs are listed as follows:

    • John Smith, CERT ’03

Capitalize CERT and do not follow with a period.

chair

This gender-neutral term is preferred over chairwoman or chairman. Do not use chairperson unless it is an organization’s formal title for an office.

chancellor

leads the University System of Maryland together with the Board of Regents, which appoints the chancellor

See academic and administrative titles.

city

Capitalize city if part of a proper name, an integral part of an official name or a regularly used nickname: Kansas City, New York City, Charm City. It is never Baltimore City.

Lowercase elsewhere and in all “city of” phrases: city government; the city of Baltimore.

Clinical Law Offices

See UB Offices.

collective nouns

Nouns that denote a unit take singular verbs and pronouns; they include: class, committee, family, group, jury, orchestra, team.

    • The committee is meeting to set its agenda.
    • The jury reached its verdict.
    • The faculty is reviewing the proposal. (but: Faculty members are reviewing the proposal.)

College of Public Affairs

on second reference and thereafter: college

colleges, schools

The University of Baltimore comprises four main colleges or units, under which all other schools, departments and divisions fall: the College of Public Affairs, the Merrick School of Business, the UB School of Law and the Yale Gordon College of Arts and Sciences.

Within the College of Arts and Sciences, UB also houses the Klein Family School of Communications Design. Within the College of Public Affairs, UB houses the School of Criminal Justice, the School of Health and Human Services and the School of Public and International Affairs.

collegewide

Do not hyphenate.

commencement

Commencement is the University’s formal graduation ceremony. Do not confuse it with convocation, which is the University’s formal opening event for the academic year.

lowercase

communication

This refers to the act of communicating, whereas communications, plural, refer to a countable number of messages.

    • She sent him three communications about tuition payment deadlines.

In the name of UB’s undergraduate and graduate certificate programs, Communication is singular: Digital Communication; never use the plural Digital Communications.

company

Use the abbreviation Co., not Company, when it occurs the end of the formal name of a company.

See business and corporation names.

compliment, complement

Compliment is a noun or a verb that denotes praise or the expression of courtesy.

    • The captain complimented the sailors.
    • She was flattered by the compliments on her project.

Complement is a noun and a verb denoting completeness or the process of supplementing something.

    • The ship has a complement of 200 sailors and 20 officers.
    • The tie complements his suit.

compose

means “to create” or “to put together”; do not confuse it with comprise. It commonly is used in both the active and passive voices: Various parts compose a whole, or a whole can be composed of its parts.

    • The University of Baltimore is composed of the College of Public Affairs, the Merrick School of Business, the UB School of Law and the Yale Gordon College of Arts and Sciences.
    • All 50 states together compose the United States.

composition titles

Italicize the titles of books, periodicals (including online magazines), movies, television series, computer and video games, plays, works of art, musical albums and compositions (except those with generic titles, e.g., Symphony No. 5 in C Minor), collections of poetry and long poems.

Capitalize the first word of any title. Capitalize all words that are four letters or longer. Do not capitalize the articles a, an and the. Do not capitalize conjunctions or prepositions unless they are four letters or longer.

In short: Capitalize the first word, any word four letters or longer, and all nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives and pronouns.

    • The Elements of Style is a popular book among editors.
    • He read Gone With the Wind over spring break.
    • Top Gun is her favorite movie.

comprise

means “to contain” or “to include all,” so do not use is comprised of. A whole comprises its parts.

    • The School of Law comprises both day and evening divisions.

See include.

Constitution

Capitalize references to the U.S. Constitution, with or without the U.S. modifier.

    • The president said he supports the Constitution.

When referring to constitutions of other nations or of states, capitalize only with the name of a nation or a state.

    • the French Constitution
    • the Massachusetts Constitution
    • the nation’s constitution
    • the state constitution
    • the constitution

Lowercase in other uses: the organization’s constitution.

Lowercase constitutional in all uses.

convocation

Convocation is the University’s formal opening event for the academic year, during which the president and provost present the state of the University. Do not confuse it with commencement, which is the University’s formal graduation ceremony.

lowercase

corporation

Use the abbreviation Corp., not Corporation, when it occurs at the end of the formal name of an organization.

See business and corporation names.

course titles, numbers

Course titles are capitalized but do not appear in quotations when the formal name of the course as it appears in the course catalog is used. When terms are used generically, lowercase.

    • Every student must take Ideas in Writing.
    • The program’s capstone course is Final Seminar.
    • John Smith teaches courses in tax accounting.

When a course code and course number are used in a periodical, they should appear in the following format:

    • CRJU 341: Correctional Perspectives.

coursework

one word

court cases

Italicize the names of court cases. Also, use v., not vs.

courtesy titles

In periodicals, press releases, recruitment materials and other publications, do not use courtesy titles such as Mr., Miss, Mrs., Esq. or the Hon. Also, do not use the title of Dr. unless the individual has earned a medical degree.

notable exceptions: commencement programs and other publications of equal formality

courtroom

one word

CPA

on first reference: certified public accountant; thereafter: CPA (without periods)

credits

Academic credits are always listed in numerical form, even when the number is fewer than 10.

    • Jane must take 6 credits next semester to graduate on time.
    • Ideas in Writing is a 3-credit course.

cum laude

means “with distinction”; do not italicize this or other commonly used Latin terms. (If it’s in a standard dictionary, it’s considered common enough not to require italics.)

D

data

Data is the plural of datum. It is used both in the plural and the singular form.

When treated as a unit, use the singular form.

    • The data is sound.

When referencing individual items, use the plural.

    • The data have been carefully collected.

database

one word

dates

Always write out the months of March, April, May, June and July. For all other months, abbreviate the month if a specific date follows. (notable exceptions: commencement programs and other publications of equal formality)

If only the month and the year are listed, do not separate them with a comma and do not abbreviate the month.

    • May 24, 2015 (Do not use th and st superscripts: May 24, not May 24th.)
    • December 2015
    • Dec. 1
    • the class of ’15
    • the ’60s, the ’90s (Note: There is no apostrophe between the last digit of the year and the s.)
    • Aug. 26, 2015, marked the first day of the new semester.
    • The 2015-16 academic calendar is posted on the University’s website.

days

Always write out the day of the week. When listed with a month, separate with a comma.

    • Today is Monday, July 6, 2015.
    • Monday, June 8, marked her 10-year anniversary at work.

decision-making

degrees

Capitalize the full degree title; lowercase the shorter form.

    • associate degree
    • Bachelor of Arts degree
    • bachelor’s degree in history
    • Bachelor of Arts in History
    • Juris Doctor degree
    • Master of Science degree
    • master’s degree in criminal justice
    • Master of Arts in Publications Design
    • master’s program in public administration
    • Master of Public Administration program (Note: When referencing an academic program, the word program is not capitalized.)
    • doctorate (Note: Doctorate is a noun, doctoral is an adjective.)

In general, do not use abbreviations for degrees after a person’s name (e.g., John Smith, Ph.D., spoke at the University.), unless you are referring to UB alumni, who should be listed with their degree information on first reference (e.g., Peter Angelos, LL.B. ’61).

Use periods in abbreviations of academic degrees: B.A., B.S., D.P.A., D.S., J.D., LL.B., LL.M., M.A., M.F.A., M.P.A., M.S., Ph.D. (Note: The periods do not apply in MBA or in listings of certificates earned, e.g., Jane Smith, CERT ’03.)

departments

Capitalize when using the full, proper name.

    • the Department of Finance and Economics

Five academic departments exist at the University; all fall within the Merrick School of Business:

    • the Department of Accounting
    • the Department of Finance and Economics
    • the Department of Information Systems and Decision Science
    • the Department of Management and International Business
    • the Department of Marketing and Entrepreneurship.

Otherwise, lowercase unless a proper noun appears. 

    • the English department
    • the psychology department

divisions

ADMINISTRATIVE

Three administrative divisions exist within the University:

    • the Division of Administration and Finance
    • the Division of Enrollment Management
    • the Division of Student Affairs.

ACADEMIC

Three academic divisions exist at the University; all fall within the Yale Gordon College of Arts and Sciences:

    • the Division of Applied Behavioral Sciences
    • the Division of Legal, Ethical and Historical Studies
    • the Division of Science, Information Arts and Technologies.

doctor, Dr.

Use this title only when referring to individuals who have earned medical degrees.

doctoral, doctorate

Doctoral is an adjective; doctorate is a noun.

dollar amounts

Always use figures; eliminate the period and extra zeros if the figure is a whole amount.

    • $50, not $50.00

Use a hyphen to indicate a range.

    • $5-$10

drop/add

Use a forward slash, not a hyphen.

E

e-

Words that start with e- (such as e-learning) should be capitalized only at the beginning of a sentence or in a title.

e.g.

means “for example”; it is followed by a comma (Do not confuse with i.e., which means “that is.”)

email

lowercase; do not hyphenate

emerita, emeritus, emeriti

follows president or professor (professor emeritus, not emeritus professor)

Use emeritus for a man, emerita for a woman and emeriti for the plural.

endowed professorships, named professorships

Capitalize all nouns in the title, whether the title appears before or after the person’s name.

    • In 2011, Dennis Pitta became the Merrick School of Business’ J. William Middendorf Distinguished Professor.

Eubie, the UB bee

the University’s mascot, a male bee

F

faculty

Faculty, like other collective nouns, is used with the singular form of a verb when considered one unit and the plural form of a verb when considered a group of individuals.

    • The faculty insists that students be allowed to speak.
    • The faculty include distinguished scholars in many fields.
      (also acceptable: The faculty members include distinguished scholars in many fields.)

Adjunct faculty are teachers who work part time, often teaching only one or two courses per semester. Lecturers may teach full or part time but have few or no research responsibilities.

See professor.

fax numbers

As with phone numbers, separate with periods instead of hyphens.

    • The fax number for the Office of University Relations is 410.837.6168.

federal, state

Lowercase both terms.

    • The program is awaiting federal and state funding.

fellow, fellowship

Lowercase when used alone, but capitalize when used in combination with a granting organization.

    • Joe Smith is a fellow of the University of Baltimore Hoffberger Center for Professional Ethics.
    • Jane Smith is a former Schaefer Center Fellow.

fewer, less

Use fewer for things you can count; use less to refer to bulk or quantity.

    • I had less than $50 in my pocket.
    • I had fewer than 50 $1 bills in my pocket.

fiscal year

on first reference: fiscal year 2008; thereafter: FY 2008 or FY 08

foreign words

Some foreign words and abbreviations have been accepted universally into the English language and should not be italicized; examples include bon voyage, versus, vs. and et cetera. Foreign words not commonly used in English should be italicized.

See accent marks in the Punctuation section.

freshman, freshmen

Freshman is a singular adjective and a singular noun; freshmen is a plural noun.

    • singular noun: She is a freshman at the University of Baltimore.
    • plural noun: All freshmen attended orientation in August.
    • adjective: She enrolled in freshman courses.

fundraiser, fundraising

    • The fundraising campaign was successful.
    • Fundraising is difficult in a recession.
    • He works as a fundraiser for the foundation.

G

gender-neutral language

Gender-neutral language is preferred; however, avoid the s/he construction by using plural references (e.g., students or they) or by rewriting the sentence.

    • Law students must put their studies first.
    • For a law student, studies come first.

G.I. Bill

GOLD Club

a UB Alumni Association-sponsored group that comprises graduates from the last decade; “Graduates of the Last Decade” should not be written out

government officials

GOVERNOR

Capitalize and abbreviate as Gov. or Govs. when used as a formal title before one or more names both inside and outside quotations. Lowercase and spell out in all other uses.

    • Maryland Gov. Larry Hogan spoke with the media.
    • The media spoke with Larry Hogan, governor of Maryland.
    • The governor spoke with the media.

LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR

Capitalize and abbreviate as Lt. Gov. or Lt. Govs. when used as a formal title before one or more names both inside and outside quotations. Lowercase and spell out in all other uses.

ATTORNEY GENERAL

Never abbreviate. Capitalize only when used as a title before a name.

TREASURER

Capitalize when used as a formal title before a name.

COMPTROLLER

Comptroller generally is the accurate word for government financial officers. Capitalize comptroller and controller when used as the formal titles for financial officers before one or more names. Lowercase aircraft controller and similar occupational applications of the word.

GPA

capitalize without periods; can be used in lieu of grade point average on first and subsequent references

grades

Use a capital letter without quotation marks. To pluralize, add an s without an apostrophe.

    • Jane Smith earned a B in her accounting course.
    • Jane earned all Bs in the spring 2016 semester.

gray

not grey

H

health care

two words as a noun; hyphenate as an adjective

    • Health care is an important political issue.
    • Politicians often debate about health-care spending.

Helen P. Denit Honors Program

on second reference and thereafter: Denit Honors Program or honors program; also: honors classes, honors student

high-tech

home page

refers to the “front” page of a particular website; two words

Index page is the more technical term for this same page, referring to the index file in the site’s backend file structure, as in UB’s content management system.

Landing page refers to the “front” page of a particular section within the website.

I

i.e.

means “that is”; followed by a comma (Do not confuse it with e.g., which means “for example” and is also followed by a comma.)

    • UB’s four schools (i.e., the College of Public Affairs, the Merrick School of Business, the School of Law and the Yale Gordon College of Arts and Sciences) are located on the University’s downtown Baltimore campus.

immigrate

One who comes into a country immigrates.

Do not confuse it with emigrate, which means “to leave a country.”

imply

Writers or speakers imply something through the words they use.

Do not confuse it with infer, which is what listeners or readers do.

inasmuch as

include

Use include to introduce a series when the items that follow are only part of the total.

    • My syllabus includes texts.

Use comprise when the full list of individual elements is given.

    • My syllabus comprises texts, discussions and exams.

See comprise.

indentation

Do not indent the first line of the first paragraph of text, but do indent the first lines of all subsequent paragraphs.

initials

Use periods without spaces when an individual uses initials instead of a first and/or middle name: J.P. Morgan. The use of middle initials is a matter of the subject’s personal preference. Abbreviations using only the initials of a name do not include periods: JFK.

See period in the Punctuation section.

in order to

Use just to.

    • I get my morning coffee at Starbucks to avoid making it at home.

inquire, inquiry

not enquire, enquiry

in residence

When this term is used in an academic or administrative title, such as scholar in residence or writer in residence, do not hyphenate.

See academic and administrative titles.

insofar as

in spite of

Use despite; it means the same thing and is shorter.

information technology

on second reference and thereafter: IT is acceptable

institutes

See UB offices.

instructor

A person is an instructor in a discipline, not of a discipline. Do not use it as a title before a name.

international students

preferable over foreign students

internet

Lowercase this term.

    • Internet addresses include email addresses and website designations (URLs).
      Follow the spelling and capitalization of the website owner.
    • In stories, try to use the name of the website rather than the web address. So it’s Facebook, not Facebook.com.
    • If an internet address falls at the end of a sentence, finish the sentence with a period.
    • If an internet address breaks between lines, split it directly after a slash or dot, without inserting a hyphen.
      www.ubalt.edu/
      hoffberger
    • Do not use http:// if the URL begins with www. Use it if the URL does not.
      notable exceptions: law.ubalt.edu and langsdale.ubalt.edu (These URLs require neither http:// nor www.) Also, for advertising purposes such as brief print ads and billboards, the www need not appear in UB’s main home page address; ubalt.edu can suffice if space is an issue.
    • Double-check the accuracy of URLs that you are listing in text.
    • internet terms: cybersecurity, download, dot-com, firewall, freeware, FTP (file transfer protocol), home page, hyperlink, intranet, IP address (internet protocol address, a numeric address given to a computer connected to the internet), listserv, login, MP3, screen saver, URL (Uniform Resource Locator), webpage, website, webcam, webcast, webmaster, Wi-Fi, zip files

See URLs and email addresses and web.

irregardless

This term does not exist and would be a double negative, if it did. Regardless is the correct word.

Islam

Followers are called Muslims. The adjective is Islamic.

italicization

Italicize the titles of books, periodicals (including online magazines), movies, television series, computer and video games, plays, works of art, musical compositions (except those with generic titles, e.g., Symphony No. 5 in C Minor), collections of poetry and long poems.

Italicize legal citations and use v. for versus: Brown v. Board of Education.

See composition titles.

it’s, its

It’s is a contraction of it and is or it and has.

    • It’s up to you to use it correctly. It’s been a long time since you studied grammar.

Its refers to possession.

    • The tree has lost its leaves.

J

Jr., Sr.

Abbreviate and do not separate from the last name with a comma; apply the same rules to numerical designations.

    • Harry Connick Jr.
    • John Wiley III

judge, justice

Capitalize before a name when it is the formal title for an individual who presides in a court of law. Do not continue use in subsequent references.

judgment

not judgement

K

kids

Use children unless you are talking about goats; otherwise, kids is acceptable as an informal synonym for children in a quote or in an appropriate context.

kilo-

a prefix denoting 1,000 units of measure; do not hyphenate

Knowledge That Works

UB’s tagline, always capitalized without quotation marks

Note: This is a registered service mark with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

knowledgeable

kudos

means “credit or praise for an achievement”; the word is singular and takes a singular verb

L

languages

Capitalize the proper names of languages and dialects.

last

Avoid using it as a synonym for latest if it might be confused for final.

The last announcement was made at noon today could leave the reader wondering whether the announcement was the final announcement or whether others are to follow.

Do not use it to mean “most recent” when the name of a month or day of the week is used.

    • It happened Wednesday is fine; it happened last Wednesday is redundant.
    • Otherwise: It happened last week. It happened last month.

Latino, Latina

Latino is masculine, Latina is feminine; preferred over Hispanic when referring to people of Latin American descent. People from Spain are Spanish. Use specific nationalities when possible: Mexican, Nicaraguan, Salvadoran, Guatemalan, Puerto Rican, Costa Rican, Colombian, etc.

laws

Capitalize legislative acts but not bills. For pending legislation, do not use periods.

    • the Taft-Hartley Act
    • the Kennedy bill
    • HR 2316
    • SB 1416

lawyer

a generic term for all members of the bar; do not use it as a formal title

lay, lie

The action word is lay; it takes a direct object.

past tense and past participle: laid; present participle: laying

    • I will lay the book on the table.
    • I laid the book on the table.
    • I am laying the book on the table.

Lie indicates a state of reclining along a horizontal plane; it does not take a direct object.

past tense: lay; past participle: lain; present participle: lying

    • I will lie down for a few minutes.
    • I lay down for a few minutes.
    • I have lain down for a few minutes.
    • I am lying down for a few minutes.

When lie means to make an untrue statement, the verb forms are lie, lied, lying.

lectures

Capitalize and use quotation marks for their formal titles.

legislative titles

On first reference, use Rep., Reps., Sen. and Sens. as formal titles before one or more names. In quotes, spell out and capitalize these titles before names. In all other circumstances, spell out and lowercase representative and senator.

Spell out other legislative titles in all uses, capitalizing them before names. Add U.S. or state before a title only if necessary to avoid confusion.

Do not use legislative titles before names on second or subsequent references, unless in quotes. Congressman and congresswoman should appear as capitalized formal titles before names only in direct quotations.

Capitalize titles for formal, organizational offices within legislative bodies when they are used before names.

    • Speaker Joe Brown
    • Minority Leader Jane Smith
    • President Pro Tem Bill Jones

legislature

Capitalize when preceded by the name of a state: the Maryland Legislature. Retain the capitalization when the state name is dropped but the reference is specifically to the state’s legislature.

less

See fewer, less.

lie

See lay, lie.

lifestyle

lifetime

Light Rail

likable

not likeable

like, as

Use like to compare nouns and pronouns; it requires an object.

    • I type like a machine.

The conjunction as is the correct word to introduce clauses.

    • I type as quickly as I should.

lists

Do not use a colon after the words includes, included or including unless they are followed by bullets.

  • The committee included Ben, Julie and Peter.
  • not: The committee included: Ben, Julie and Peter.

Maintain parallel construction in listed items. That is, if some items are full sentences, all items should be full sentences. If some items begin with verbs, all items should begin with verbs.

Avoid numbering unless there will be a reference to the numbers in later text or unless indicating numbered steps in a process.

In bulleted lists, use a period after each item only if it is a complete sentence; always use a period after the last item if the list itself forms a complete sentence.

Jane’s favorite vegetables are:

    • peas
    • carrots
    • Brussels sprouts
    • asparagus.

Otherwise:

favorite vegetables:

    • peas
    • carrots
    • Brussels sprouts
    • asparagus

Do not capitalize list items unless each item is a complete sentence.

Alphabetize, or put the items in some other logical order.

locations

See UB Buildings and Spaces.

log in, login

one word as an adjective and a noun:

    • Students must obtain their email login information when they first arrive at UB.
    • Students much change their email logins every six months.

two words as a verb:

    • Every morning I log in to my computer.

logo

See the Graphic Identity Guide.

lowercase

one word, always

-ly

Do not use a hyphen between adverbs ending in -ly and the adjectives they modify.

    • a widely praised film
    • an easily passed exam
    • a fully informed consumer

M

magazine names

Capitalize and italicize the names of periodicals and publications. Lowercase magazine and do not italicize unless it is part of the publication’s formal title: Baltimore magazine, the University of Baltimore Magazine.

See composition titles.

magna cum laude

means “with great distinction”; do not italicize

man, mankind

Either may be used when both men and women are involved and no other term is convenient, but a better choice may be humanity, a person or an individual.

MARC train

Maryland Rail Commuter train service

Maryland Transit Administration

oversees the Light Rail, the Metro Subway, the MARC train and the bus system; on second reference and thereafter: MTA

MBA

Do not use periods; note that this is an exception to the usual practice of including periods in degree abbreviations.

See degrees.

media, medium

Media is a plural noun and therefore takes a plural verb; medium is the singular form of the noun.

Merrick School of Business

on second reference and thereafter: School of Business or business school (lowercase)

Metro Subway

Baltimore’s subway line

mic

As an informal reference to a microphone, use mic, not mike.

mid-

In general, do not hyphenate unless mid- is followed by a capitalized word.

    • midterm
    • midsemester
    • mid-Atlantic

Hyphenate when mid- precedes a figure: mid-30s.

Middle East

The term applies to southwest Asia west of Pakistan and Afghanistan (Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the eastern part of Turkey known also as Asia Minor, United Arab Emirates and Yemen), and northeastern Africa (Egypt and Sudan). Middle East is preferred over Mideast.

Middle States Commission on Higher Education

The Middle States Commission on Higher Education is a voluntary, nongovernmental, peer-based membership association established to oversee educational quality and improvement through an accrediting process based on peer review. The federal government requires that institutions located in our region be accredited by Middle States for their students to be eligible to participate in federal financial aid programs.

on second reference and thereafter: Middle States is acceptable

midnight

Do not put a 12 in front of it. It is part of the day that is ending, not the one that is beginning.

midtown

Do not capitalize when referring to midtown Baltimore.

millions, billions

Use a figure (not beyond two decimal places) and the word for large numbers.

    • The rare blue diamond sold for $48.5 million at auction.

money

Spell out or use figures, following the rules for numbers, numerals. If you spell out the amount, spell out the currency; if you use figures for the amount, use symbols for the currency.

For specified amounts, dollars takes a singular verb: They said $50,000 is what they raised.

Use the following forms: $4.35 million; $650,000; $1,000; $500; $25; $4; $5-$10.

monthlong

months

When using with a specific day or range of days, abbreviate as:

    • Jan.
    • Feb.
    • Aug.
    • Sept.
    • Oct.
    • Nov.
    • Dec.

notable exceptions: commencement programs and other publications of equal formality

The other months are always spelled out.

When a phrase lists only a month and a year, do not separate the year with commas. When a phrase refers to a month, day and year, set off the year with commas.

    • I was born in March 1980.
    • I was born March 26, 1980, in Baltimore.

Mount

Spell out unless it is listed with a street address: 21 W. Mt. Royal Ave.

Mount Vernon

The area just south of the heart of the UB campus, bordered by Mount Royal Avenue to the north, Mulberry Street to the south, Guilford Avenue to the east and Howard Street to the west. The Mount Vernon Cultural District is a historic district.

multi-

Do not hyphenate unless necessary to avoid awkward reading.

    • multicultural
    • multinational
    • multimedia
    • multipurpose
    • but: multimillion-dollar (adjective)

music

Capitalize, but do not use quotation marks for or italicize, generic titles for orchestral works (which typically include the composer’s name and a suite or symphony number): Bach’s Suite No. 1 for Orchestra, Beethoven’s Serenade for Flute, Violin and Viola. Italicize any composition titles that are unique and nongeneric: Symphonie Fantastique, Water Music.

If you are listing one composition from a suite, one song from an album or an individual song, use quotation marks for the single composition/song and italics for the suite/album: “Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy” from The Nutcracker Suite; “Wanted Dead or Alive” from Bon Jovi’s Cross Road album.

When listing musical compositions for programs or fliers, particularly for Spotlight UB, note:

    • Opus is abbreviated Op.; number is abbreviated No.
    • Typically, the opus is listed before the number, with a comma separating the two categorizations: Op. 120, No. 1.
    • Köchel-Verzeichnis is abbreviated KV without a period following the acronym.

Muslim

Muslim is the preferred term over Moslem.

MyUB

MyUB allows students to view class schedules, check admission status, apply for financial aid, register for classes, check grades and pay bills. It also allows faculty and staff to perform various job-related functions.

N

names

Use the first name, middle initial (if that is the subject’s preference) and last name on first reference; thereafter, use only the last name.

name suffixes

See Jr., Sr.

national anthem

Lowercase national anthem, but capitalize the title “The Star-Spangled Banner.”

nationwide

Native American, American Indian

Native American or American Indian is acceptable for those in the United States. Follow the person’s preference. Where possible, use the name of the tribe: He is Navajo.

This term is never hyphenated.

neither … nor

The nouns following these words require verbs that agree with the nearest subject.

    • Neither he nor they are going. Neither they nor he is going.

newspaper names

Capitalize and italicize newspaper names in periodicals and publications. Capitalize the in a newspaper’s name only if that is the way the publication prefers to be known.

    • The Washington Post
    • Chicago Tribune

Where location is needed but not part of the official name, use parentheses and do not italicize the location.

    • The (New Orleans) Times-Picayune

nicknames

Nicknames should be put in quotation marks and should be listed between a subject’s first and last names.

    • Richard “Dick” Brown

nighttime

non-

Generally, do not hyphenate.

    • nonprofit
    • nondenominational
    • nondegree

noncontroversial

All issues are controversial, so a noncontroversial issue is impossible. A controversial issue is redundant.

none

It usually means “no single one,” so in this sense it takes a singular verb and pronoun.

    • None of the signs was written correctly.

Use a plural verb only if the sense is “no two or no amount.”

    • None of the professors agree on the topic.

nonprofit

one word as both a noun and an adjective

noon

Use noon instead of 12 p.m. in all instances.

North America

Canada, the United States, Mexico and Greenland

numbers, numerals

FIGURES

Use figures for numbers 10 and above; one through nine should be spelled out. This holds true for ordinal numbers: first through ninth, then 10th, 11th, 22nd, 33rd, etc.

Always spell out numbers that begin a sentence: Eighty-six percent of faculty members hold the highest degree in their fields.

Use figures exclusively for ages (a 4-year-old child), acres, cents, dimensions (the rug is 2 feet wide), dollar amounts ($5), formulas, heights (he is 6 feet tall), military and political designations (2nd District Court), percentages, ratios (a 3-to-1 ratio), sizes (a size 7.5 shoe), speeds, temperatures (except zero), volume and weight.

See percent and dollar amounts.

FRACTIONS

Spell out amounts less than one, using hyphens between words: two-thirds, one-half, etc; use figures for amounts larger than one, converting to decimals whenever practical.

PLURAL NUMBERS/YEARS

With plural numbers and years, use an s without a preceding apostrophe: She’ll be in her mid-30s in the 2010s. The Roaring ’20s were exciting years.

See dates.

BUILDINGS AND ROOMS

Room numbers come after the building designation; capitalize Room.

    • My office is in the Academic Center, Room 242G.

Some UB buildings are known by their addresses: 1104 Maryland Ave., 5 W. Chase St.

CREDITS

Always use figures when referring to credits.

GRADUATION YEARS

Graduation years use an apostrophe (not an open single quote—be careful when using Microsoft Word) and the two-figure designation for the year preceded by the degree.

    • John Doe, B.S. ’98, works for the government.

See alumna, alumnae, alumni.

NO.

When the word number is used with a figure to express a ranking, use No. (capitalized); Nos. is the plural form. Do not use in street addresses, except for No. 10 Downing St., the residence of Britain’s prime minister.

    • No. 1 team
    • No. 3 choice

PHONE NUMBERS

Use periods, not hyphens, in phone numbers.

See phone numbers.

O

offices

For the formal names of UB’s various offices, see UB Offices.

off of

The of is unnecessary. He fell off the ladder.

OK, OK’d, OK’ing, OKs

not okay

on-campus, off-campus

hyphenate when used as an adjective or compound modifier; otherwise: two words

online, offline

one word; do not hyphenate

onsite, on site

one word as an adjective; otherwise: two words

open mic

See mic.

P

page number(s)

Use page with figures; do not capitalize page, contrary to AP style.

part-time, part time

Hyphenate when used as a compound modifier: He has a part-time job. Otherwise: He works part time.

Patricia and Arthur Modell Performing Arts Center at the Lyric

on second reference: Modell Performing Arts Center; thereafter: center

Do not use an ampersand.

people

Use people instead of persons or individuals. Persons should be used only in direct quotes.

percent

Spell it out and always use it with figures. It takes a singular verb when standing alone or when a singular word follows of. It takes a plural verb when a plural word follows of.

    • The report shows 9 percent of our students were once at the Community College of Baltimore County, Essex.

phone numbers

Use periods instead of hyphens.

    • 1.877.ApplyUB
    • 410.837.4200

photo captions

Use l. to r.: to identify individuals when more than one person is pictured in a photo. You do not need to repeat directionals for additional photos on the same page, but continue to list names in left-to-right order in other photo captions.

End a photo caption with a period only if it is a complete sentence.

    • John Smith, J.D. ’72
    • John Smith, J.D. ’72, accepts his award from Jane Doe, professor of law.

plurals

The AP Stylebook is an excellent source of information on rules about plurals. Some of the most pertinent are:

COLLOQUIALISMS

Do not use ’s: There are no ifs, ands or buts about it.

PROPER NAMES

    • most names ending in es, s or z—add es: Charleses, Gonzalezes
    • most names ending in y—add only s: Kennedys

FIGURES

Add s without an apostrophe: Temperatures this week will be in the 40s.

SINGLE LETTERS

Use ’s: Mind your p’s and q’s. But use s without an apostrophe when referring to grades: She earned all As and Bs.

MULTIPLE LETTERS

Add only s, without an apostrophe: She learned her ABCs.

P.M., A.M.

Lowercase with periods.

See a.m., p.m.

possessives

The AP Stylebook is an excellent source of information on rules about possessives. Some of the most pertinent are:

SINGULAR COMMON NOUNS ENDING IN S

Add ’s unless the next word begins with s: the hostess’s order form, the hostess’ seat, the witness’s answer, the witness’ sworn testimony.

SINGULAR PROPER NOUNS ENDING IN S

Add only an apostrophe: Achilles’ heel, Charles’ book, Jesus’ teachings.

JOINT/INDIVIDUAL POSSESSION

Use a possessive only after the last name if ownership is joint: Sam and Sally’s apartment.

Use a possessive after all names if objects are individually owned: Sam’s and Sally’s books.

DESCRIPTIVE PHRASES

Do not add an apostrophe to a word ending in s when it is used primarily in a descriptive sense: citizens band radio, teachers college, writers guide. An ’s is required if the term involves a plural word that does not end in s: a children’s book, a people’s republic.

QUASI POSSESSIVES

    • a day’s pay, two weeks’ vacation, your money’s worth

Frequently, a hyphenated form is clearer: a two-week vacation.

preeminent

Do not hyphenate.

presently

Use presently to mean “in a little while” or “shortly,” but not to mean “now.”

president

Capitalize as the formal title before a name but not when the title follows a name.

    • President Kurt L. Schmoke spoke at the conference today.
    • Kurt L. Schmoke, president of the University of Baltimore, spoke at the conference today.

on second reference and thereafter: never use the title before a last name; simply use the individual’s last name

    • Schmoke attended a dinner directly following the conference.
    • not: President Schmoke attended a dinner directly following the conference.

principal, principle

Principal is a noun and adjective meaning “first in rank” or “primary.”

    • She is the school principal. Money is the principal problem.

Principle is a noun that means a “fundamental truth, law, doctrine or motivating force.”

    • They fought for the principle of democracy.

problem-solving

professor

Capitalize before a name. Professor is an academic rank or title. Variations include associate, assistant and visiting professor. Other titles include adjunct faculty (not adjunct professor) and lecturer. Whenever possible, include this title after the name and lowercase the title. A title is only capitalized when it appears before a name—unless it is an endowed or named position.

See capitalization and endowed professorships, named professorships.

program

Capitalize only when included as part of a proper name: Helen P. Denit Honors Program, Truancy Court Program. Otherwise, lowercase: Forensic Studies program.

Note: The names of academic programs are always capitalized, but the word program is not.

provost

The provost is the University’s chief academic officer and also serves as the executive vice president for academic affairs.

See academic and administrative titles.

publication titles

See composition titles.

Publications Design

In the name of UB’s Publications Design program, Publications ends with an s. It is always plural; never use Publication Design.

Q

Q&A

Q&A is an acceptable first reference for “question-and-answer.”

R

RSVP

Do not use periods. It stands for répondez, s’il vous plait, which means “please reply”; it’s redundant to say “Please RSVP.” also: RSVP’d, RSVPing (in informal contexts)

S

schools

See colleges, schools.

Sept. 11

This is the preferred term to use in describing the terrorist attacks of Sept. 11, 2001.

software titles

Capitalize but do not italicize such titles as Microsoft Word or Windows.

spaces

See UB Buildings and Spaces.

Spotlight UB

the University of Baltimore’s performing arts initiative that provides programming to the campus community and the surrounding neighborhood

state

Lowercase in all “state of” constructions: the state of Maryland.

Also see federal, state.

state names

Spell out in all instances in written copy. Use the two-letter postal code abbreviations only with full addresses, including ZIP code.

Station North Arts and Entertainment District

This area spans the communities of Charles North, Greenmount West and Barclay to the north of the University of Baltimore. It is a diverse collection of artist live-work spaces, galleries, rowhouses and businesses.

Do not use an ampersand; on second reference and thereafter, Station North is acceptable.

summa cum laude

means “with highest distinction”; do not italicize

T

telephone numbers

See phone numbers.

that, which

Follow AP style. Use that for essential clauses, when it’s important to the meaning of the sentence and when there are no commas.

    • It was clear that we had nothing in common.

Use which for nonessential clauses, where the pronoun is less important and commas are necessary.

    • The class, which meets every Saturday, is like no other on campus.

When in doubt, use that.

theater

Use theater in all cases, unless theatre is part of the formal name of a space. At UB, the formal name of the theater is the Wright Theater (not Theatre).

time of day

Include periods and use lowercase letters for the time of day. Do not use the colon and double zeros for times that fall on the hour.

    • 3 p.m., not 3:00 p.m.

Do not use 12 noon or 12 midnight. Use noon and midnight.

In announcements of upcoming events, the day and date should precede the time of the event to maintain clarity. In other words, use the following formula: date/time/place.

    • The event is scheduled for Thursday, July 30, at 4:30 p.m. in the H. Mebane Turner Learning Commons lobby.

titles

See academic and administrative titles, composition titles, courtesy titles and government officials.

toward

not towards

Truancy Court Program

U

UB

acceptable only as a second reference or thereafter, and do not use periods; always use University of Baltimore on first reference

United States

U.S. is acceptable as an adjective, but always use United States for the noun.

Universities at Shady Grove

The Universities at Shady Grove is a collaboration of eight public, degree-granting institutions, including the University of Baltimore. UB offers several undergraduate and graduate programs at the Universities at Shady Grove campus in Rockville, Maryland. USG is acceptable on second reference; Shady Grove is not.

University

Always capitalize when referring specifically to the University of Baltimore. When referring to other institutions, lowercase when this word stands alone (not in the formal name of the institution).

University of Baltimore

on second reference and thereafter: UB or University (University is always capitalized when it refers specifically to the University of Baltimore.)

University of Baltimore Alumni Association

on second reference and thereafter: UB Alumni Association, alumni association or association

University of Baltimore Foundation

on second reference and thereafter: UB Foundation or foundation

The UB Foundation Board of Directors leads this organization.

University of Baltimore School of Law

on first reference: UB School of Law is acceptable if University of Baltimore appears earlier in the copy; thereafter: law school (lowercase)

University System of Maryland

on second reference and thereafter: USM or system

other member institutions are (take note of commas):

    • Bowie State University
    • Coppin State University
    • Frostburg State University
    • Salisbury University
    • Towson University
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore County
    • University of Maryland, College Park
    • University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science
    • University of Maryland Eastern Shore
    • University of Maryland University College

regional centers for higher education:

    • Universities at Shady Grove
    • University System of Maryland at Hagerstown

University System of Maryland Board of Regents

A 17-member Board of Regents, including one full-time student, governs the University System of Maryland. Appointed by the governor, the regents oversee the system’s academic, administrative and financial operations; formulate policy; and appoint the chancellor and the presidents of the system’s 12 institutions.

on second reference and thereafter: Board of Regents, regents or board

University-wide

URLs and email addresses

When possible, incorporate the address into a sentence.

Do not add punctuation to an internet address unless it falls at the end of a sentence, in which case a period can be added—but make sure the period is not part of the address.

If an address won’t fit on one line, break the address after a forward slash or before a period. Do not hyphenate and do not underline or create a hyperlink in regular (nonweb) copy.

In electronic copy, when feasible, avoid the use of the URL altogether and create a link directly from the item.

See internet and web.

U.S.

See United States.

V

W

web

Lowercase this term.

related terms: webpage, website, webcam, webcast, webmaster

See internet, URLs and email addresses and Web Writing Tips.

work force

two words

workplace

work-study

X

Y

Yale Gordon College of Arts and Sciences

on second reference: College of Arts and Sciences; thereafter: college

yearlong

one word

years

See dates.

Z

ZIP

always in all capital letters when referring to ZIP code

 

Punctuation

accent marks (´)

Do not use accent marks on foreign words that have become part of the English vocabulary: cafe, cliche, detente, denouement, debacle, protege, resume

Do, however, use accent marks on individuals’ names when requested to do so.

apostrophe (’)

Use apostrophes in place of omitted letters and in contractions: I’ve, it’s, don’t, rock ’n’ roll, ’tis the season to be jolly, he is a ne’er-do-well.

To create the closed apostrophe (the one that loops toward the left) in Microsoft Word:

PC: Hit the apostrophe key twice, then delete the first instance so the apostrophe curves the correct way.

Mac: SHIFT + OPTION + ] (right bracket key)

Also use apostrophes in place of omitted numbers: the class of ’62, the Spirit of ’76, the ’20s.

Do not use an apostrophe for plurals of numerals or multiple-letter combinations:

    • The airline has two 727s. They were VIPs.

Use in constructions only where warranted: Ravens quarterback Joe Flacco doesn’t get an apostrophe, but Joe Flacco, the Ravens’ quarterback, because it’s possessive.

See alumna, alumnae, alumni; dates; numbers, numerals; plurals; and possessives.

colon (:)

Generally, use a colon at the end of a sentence to introduce lists, tabulations, texts, etc. Do not combine a dash and a colon. Colons go outside quotation marks unless they are part of the quotation itself. Capitalize the first word after a colon if it is a proper noun or if it starts a complete sentence.

    • There were three words that described his mood: dreary, dark and disapproving.
    • She promised this: She would improve her grades next semester.

comma (,)

Do not use the serial comma unless it is absolutely necessary to avoid confusion; in other words, do not put a comma before the conjunction in a simple series.

    • John, Paul, George and Ringo are better known as the Beatles.

If items in the series contain commas themselves, use semicolons between all items.

    • The letters she wrote are dated Aug. 7, 1918; May 12, 1935; and Jan. 4, 1965.

Place a comma before and after the following when they appear in the middle of a sentence:

A DATE, IF IT FOLLOWS THE DAY AND MONTH

    • He will perform on Tuesday, Aug. 18, in the auditorium.

A YEAR, IF IT FOLLOWS A MONTH AND DATE

    • I was born on Nov. 6, 1958, in Madison, Wisconsin.

A STATE, IF IT FOLLOWS A CITY OR COUNTY NAME

    • I was born in Madison, Wisconsin, on Nov. 6, 1958.

AN APPOSITIVE (A WORD OR PHRASE THAT SAYS THE SAME THING AS A WORD OR PHRASE NEXT TO IT)

    • I saw my boss, John Smith, in the hall. (My boss and John Smith are one and the same.)

However, do not place a comma after a title that precedes a name:

    • Executive Editor John McFeely resigned today.

ellipsis ( … )

Use an ellipsis to indicate the deletion of one or more words when condensing quotes, texts and documents. Be especially careful to avoid deletions that would distort the meaning.

To create the ellipsis in Microsoft Word:

PC: ALT + CTRL + . (period key)

Mac: OPTION + ; (semicolon key)

Treat it as a three-letter word, with spaces before and after the ellipsis ( … ).

ELLIPSIS WITH OTHER PUNCTUATION

If the ellipsis comes at the end of a grammatically complete sentence, finish the sentence with a period. Add a space between the period and the ellipsis.

    • I no longer have a strong enough political base. ...

When the sentence or phrase ends with a question mark, exclamation point (acceptable only in quotes), comma or colon, add a space between the punctuation mark and the ellipsis:

    • Will you come? ...

When material is deleted at the end of one paragraph and at the beginning of the one that follows, place an ellipsis in both locations.

Do not use ellipses at the beginning and end of direct quotes:

    • “It has become evident to me that I no longer have a strong enough political base,” Nixon said.
    • not: “... it has become evident to me that I no longer have a strong enough political base ... ,” Nixon said.

HESITATION

An ellipsis also may be used to indicate a pause or hesitation in speech, or a thought that the speaker or writer does not complete. Use a dash for this purpose if the same context uses an ellipsis to indicate eliminated words.

exclamation point (!)

Use sparingly, if at all.

hyphen, em dash (-, —)

Hyphens are joiners. Use a hyphen to:

AVOID AMBIGUITY

    • a little-used car (a car that isn’t used very often)
    • a little used car (a small, second-hand car)

FORM A SINGLE IDEA FROM TWO OR MORE WORDS

    • She booked her ticket for a New York-London flight.
    • She is a well-known actress. otherwise: As an actress, she is well known. (no hyphen)
    • He is serving a 20-year sentence. otherwise: He was sentenced to 20 years. (no hyphen)

DENOTE A RANGE OR SHOW INCLUSION

    • She usually spends $5-$10 on lunch.
    • The homework assignment is to read pages 20-40.
    • He attended the University from 1994-98. (not 1994-1998)

notable exception: She attended the University from 1998-2002. (Include all four digits of the last year when there is a change in century.)

Microsoft Word shortcut for the em dash:

PC: ALT + CTRL + - (minus sign on the numeric keyboard)

Mac: SHIFT + OPTION + - (hyphen key)

Use the em (longer) dash for an interruption in thought, without a space on either side.

    • Although I told him to lock up his bike—and I told him many times—John was still surprised to find it gone.

Do not include a space on either side of a hyphen or an em dash.

Note: Hyphens and em dashes are not interchangeable.

parentheses ( )

Avoid using them, as they are jarring to the reader.

Place a period outside a closing parenthesis if the material inside is not a sentence (such as this).

(An independent parenthetical sentence such as this one finishes with a period before the closing parenthesis.)

period (.)

Periods always go within quotation marks. He said, “I like ice cream.”

Use only one space after a period at the end of a sentence.

Use periods after initials in names: F. Scott Fitzgerald.

If there is more than one initial in a row, do not use spaces: T.S. Eliot.

Abbreviations using only the initials of a name do not include periods: JFK.

quotation marks (“ ”)

Follow AP’s guidelines. Special note should be made to avoid using quotes around words or phrases after the first reference. Also, generally avoid using quotations to express irony or other forms of editorializing.

Follow these examples of typical uses of quotations:

    • I heard her say, “Let’s go to the party.”
    • “Let’s go to the party,” she said.
    • “The party,” she said, “is over.”
    • “I never wanted to go to the party in the first place,” Martha said. “They were playing country music.”
    • “Will there be another party next week?” she asked. “I hope so.”

Use a single quote in headlines, especially in news announcements.

    • ‘Grease’ Kicks Off Spring Theater Schedule March 8

Do not use closed quotes at the end of a quotation if that same thought continues into a new paragraph; do, however, use opening quotes at the beginning of the continued quote that starts the new paragraph.

    • She said, “There was a fight on the street.
      It was such a terrible fight, honestly, that all of us had to run away from the scene.”

If the multiparagraph quote is not introduced by a complete thought, use closed quotes at the end of the paragraph and start the next paragraph with standard punctuation.

    • He claimed that “only 50 people were displaced by the disaster.”
      “In this case, we did not see a need to evacuate,” he said.

semicolon (;)

Use a semicolon:

BETWEEN TWO MAIN CLAUSES

    • She requested that the teenagers pay rent, help out around the house or move out; the teenagers resisted this plan.

BETWEEN A MAIN CLAUSE RELATED BY "HOWEVER," "THUS" OR ANOTHER CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB

    • Her husband’s vacation was canceled; consequently, the family will be staying home this summer.

BETWEEN ITEMS IN A SERIES IF THE ITEMS IN THE SERIES ALREADY CONTAIN COMMAS

    • The advisory board comprises Amy Johnson, B.S. ’61; Ellen Faber, B.A. ’72; and G. Gordon Stone, B.S. ’94. (Note that the semicolon is used before the final and in such a series.)

Do not use a semicolon to introduce a series.

Do not place a semicolon inside quotation marks unless it is part of a written quote.

    • “The faculty voted in favor of the course; the vote was unanimous,” the professor said in his email.
    • The featured songs are “Blue Sky” and “Summer Rain”; the dance will start at noon.

 

UB Buildings and Spaces

(Download a PDF.)

Always use the full name of a building or space on first reference; guidelines on second and further references are included below. Also, do not use abbreviations (AC, AL, BC, LAP, SC) unless space prohibits the full building name being spelled out.

academic and administrative buildings and spaces

Academic Center—1420 N. Charles St. (center on second reference)
(Note: The 1420 N. Charles St. address must appear as the return address on any University mailings to qualify for the nonprofit mailing rate.)

Charles Royal Building—1319 N. Charles St. (on second reference: Charles Royal)

1104 Maryland Ave.

5 W. Chase St. (on second reference: building)

40 W. Chase St. (on second reference: building)

H. Mebane Turner Learning Commons—1415 Maryland Ave. (on second reference: Turner Learning Commons; thereafter: learning commons)

John and Frances Angelos Law Center—1401 N. Charles St. (on second reference: Angelos Law Center; thereafter: law center)

Langsdale Library—currently housed in the Turner Learning Commons (1415 Maryland Ave.) during renovation of its permanent location at 1420 Maryland Ave. (on second reference: library unless it appears in the same text as the Law Library—in that case, keep the full name intact)

Liberal Arts and Policy Building—10 W. Preston St. (on second reference: building)

UB Foundation Building—1130 N. Charles St.

UB Student Center—21 W. Mt. Royal Ave. (on second reference: student center)

William H. Thumel Sr. Business Center—11 W. Mt. Royal Ave. (on second reference: Thumel Business Center; thereafter: business center)

internal spaces

Digital Whimsy Lab

Gamelab

Hilda and Michael Bogomolny Room (on second reference: Bogomolny Room)

Jami R. Grant Forensic Laboratories

Law Library (on second reference: library unless it appears in the same text as the Langsdale Library—in that case, keep the full name intact)

M. Scot Kaufman Auditorium (on second reference: auditorium)

Moot Courtroom

Thumel Business Center Atrium (on second reference: atrium)

Town Hall 

Wagman Psychology Laboratory

Wright Theater (on second reference: theater)

UB Market and Cafe

UB Retired Faculty Lounge (on second reference: lounge)

User Research Lab

parking facilities

Please check www.ubalt.edu/parking for the most current parking facility names and locations.

Cathedral Street Lot—1150 Cathedral St.

Fitzgerald Garage—80 W. Oliver St.

Maryland Avenue Garage—1111 Maryland Ave. (address reflects front entrance)

Mount Royal Avenue Lot—131 W. Mt. Royal Ave.

other properties

Barnes & Noble at the University of Baltimore—62 W. Oliver St.

Gordon Plaza (on second reference: plaza)

Northwest Baltimore Park—2101 W. Rogers Ave.

 

UB Offices

(Download a PDF.)

University-Wide Administrative Offices and Centers

Division of Academic Affairs

Office of the Executive Vice President and Provost

Bank of America Center for Excellence in Learning, Teaching and Technology

Center for Digital Communication, Commerce and Culture

Early College Initiatives

First-Year and Sophomore Success

Helen P. Denit Honors Program

Institutional Research and Assessment

Sponsored Research

 

Division of Administration and Finance

Office of Administration and Finance

Office of Administrative and Financial Systems

Office of Auxiliary Enterprises

Barnes & Noble at the University of Baltimore

Conference Services

Mail Services

Office of Campus Card Operations

Parking and Shuttle Management

Publishing Center

Office of the Bursar

Office of the Comptroller

Office of Facilities Management and Capital Planning

Facilities Management

Housekeeping

Physical Plant

Office of Human Resources

Office of Procurement and Materials Management

University of Baltimore Police Department

Office of University Budget

 

Division of Enrollment Management and Marketing

Office of Admission

Office of Financial Aid

Office of International Services

Office of Marketing and Creative Services

Office of Records and Registration

Office of the Vice President for Enrollment Management and Marketing

 

Division of Student Affairs

BMALE Academy

Campus Recreation and Wellness

Recreation Center

Competitive Sports

Career and Professional Development Center

Counseling Center

Diversity and Culture Center

Henry and Ruth Blaustein Rosenberg Center for Student Involvement

Office of Community Life

Office of Disability and Access Services

Office of Transitions and Community Engagement

Office of the Vice President for Student Affairs

The Bob Parsons Veterans Center (Note:The” is part of the proper name.)

 

Office of Government and Public Affairs

 

Office of Institutional Advancement

Office of Alumni and Donor Services

Office of Major and Principal Gifts

 

Office of the President

 

Office of Technology Services

 

University of Baltimore Foundation

 

Offices Within Individual Schools

College of Public Affairs

Center for Drug Policy and Enforcement

Office of the Dean

College of Public Affairs Advising Center

Schaefer Center for Public Policy

School of Criminal Justice

School of Health and Human Services

School of Public and International Affairs

 

Merrick School of Business

Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation

Department of Accounting, Finance and Economics

Department of Information Systems and Decision Science

Department of Management and International Business

Department of Marketing and Entrepreneurship

Jacob France Institute

Merrick Advising Center

Office of the Dean

 

School of Law

Centers

Center on Applied Feminism

Center for International and Comparative Law

Center for the Law of Intellectual Property and Technology

Center for Medicine and the Law

Center for Sport and the Law

Sayra and Neil Meyerhoff Center for Families, Children and the Courts

Clinical Law Offices

Bronfein Family Law Clinic

Community Development Clinic

Criminal Practice Clinic

Human Trafficking Prevention Project

Immigrant Rights Clinic

Innocence Project Clinic

Juvenile Justice Project

Low-Income Taxpayer Clinic

Mediation Clinic for Families

Mental Health Law Clinic

Pretrial Justice Clinic

Saul Ewing Civil Advocacy Clinic

The Bob Parsons Veterans Advocacy Clinic (Note:The” is part of the proper name.)

Law Career Development Office

Legal Writing Center

Office of Academic Affairs–School of Law

Office of Academic Support

Legal Writing Center

Office of the Dean

Office of Law Admissions

 

Yale Gordon College of Arts and Sciences

Division of Applied Behavioral Sciences

Division of Legal, Ethical and Historical Studies

Division of Science, Information Arts and Technologies

Hoffberger Center for Professional Ethics

Klein Family School of Communications Design

Ampersand Institute for Words & Images

Mathematics Learning Center

Office of the Dean

Yale Gordon College of Arts and Sciences Advising Center

 

Libraries

Langsdale Library

Achievement and Learning Center

Writing Center

Law Library

Last Published 9/1/17